Opera Scotland

Trovatore Il Trovatore; The Troubadour

Tours by decade

1850s - 3 tours

1856 - Mr Beale's Italian Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1858 - Mr Wyndham's Italian Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1859 - Edmund Glover's Italian Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1860s - 3 tours

1861 - Grand Italian Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1867 - Madame Lancia's Grand English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1869 - Corri's Grand English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1870s - 6 tours

1873 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1874 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1874 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1876 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1877 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1878 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1880s - 9 tours

1880 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1882 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1883 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1884 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1885 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1885 - Sydney Hill's Royal English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1886 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1887 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1889 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1890s - 15 tours

1890 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1890 - Arthur Rousbey's English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1891 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1891 - Carl Rosa Carmen Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1892 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1893 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1894 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1895 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1896 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1897 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1898 - J W Turner's English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1898 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1899 - J W Turner's English Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1899 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1899 - Robert Cunningham Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1900s - 6 tours

1905 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1906 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1907 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1908 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1909 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1909 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1910s - 16 tours

1910 - Castellano Grand Italian Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1910 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1911 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1911 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1912 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1913 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1914 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1915 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1915 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1916 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1916 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1917 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1917 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1918 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1918 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1919 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1920s - 10 tours

1920 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1920 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1921 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1923 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1926 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1927 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1928 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1929 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1930s - 6 tours

1930 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1931 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1934 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1935 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1936 - Universal Grand Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1938 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1940s - 9 tours

1940 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1942 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1943 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1944 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1945 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1946 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1947 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1948 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1949 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1950s - 9 tours

1951 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1952 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1953 - Covent Garden Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1954 - Iskoldoff Italian Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1954 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1955 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1956 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1957 - Sadler's Wells Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1957 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1960s - 1 tour

1965 - Glasgow Grand Opera Society
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1980s - 2 tours

1985 - Tayside Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1986 - Scottish Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra

1990s - 3 tours

1992 - Scottish Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1996 - Scottish Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
1997 - Tayside Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra

2000s - 2 tours

2001 - Scottish Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
2004 - Hanover Staatsoper
Fully Staged with Orchestra

2010s - 4 tours

2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Cinema Screening
2011 - University of Dundee Continuing Education
Lecture with Illustrations
2015 - Scottish Opera
Fully Staged with Orchestra
2016 - Royal Opera, Covent Garden
Cinema Screening

Tours by location

Scotland, UK - 196 entries

1856 - Mr Beale's Italian Opera Company
Edinburgh
1858 - Mr Wyndham's Italian Opera Company
Edinburgh
1859 - Edmund Glover's Italian Opera Company
Greenock
1859 - Edmund Glover's Italian Opera Company
Glasgow
1861 - Grand Italian Opera
Edinburgh
1867 - Madame Lancia's Grand English Opera Company
Glasgow
1869 - Corri's Grand English Opera Company
Aberdeen
1869 - Corri's Grand English Opera Company
Dundee
1869 - Corri's Grand English Opera Company
Kilmarnock
1873 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Edinburgh
1874 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Glasgow
1874 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1876 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1877 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1877 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1877 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1878 - Her Majesty's Italian Opera
Glasgow
1880 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1882 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1882 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1883 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1883 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1884 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1885 - Sydney Hill's Royal English Opera Company
Aberdeen
1885 - Sydney Hill's Royal English Opera Company
Dundee
1885 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1885 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1886 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1887 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1889 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1890 - Arthur Rousbey's English Opera Company
Aberdeen
1890 - Arthur Rousbey's English Opera Company
Dundee
1890 - Arthur Rousbey's English Opera Company
Glasgow
1890 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1890 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1891 - Carl Rosa Carmen Company
Glasgow
1891 - Carl Rosa Carmen Company
Edinburgh
1891 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1891 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1892 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1893 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1893 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1894 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1895 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1896 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1897 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1897 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1898 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1898 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1898 - J W Turner's English Opera Company
Dundee
1899 - Robert Cunningham Opera Company
Glasgow
1899 - Robert Cunningham Opera Company
Aberdeen
1899 - Robert Cunningham Opera Company
Dundee
1899 - J W Turner's English Opera Company
Dundee
1899 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Govan
1905 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Glasgow
1906 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Greenock
1906 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1907 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1907 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1908 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1908 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Greenock
1908 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1909 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1909 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Dundee
1910 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1910 - Castellano Grand Italian Opera
Edinburgh
1910 - Castellano Grand Italian Opera
Aberdeen
1910 - Castellano Grand Italian Opera
Dundee
1911 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Aberdeen
1911 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1911 - Moody-Manners Opera Company
Dundee
1911 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1912 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1912 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1912 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1912 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1913 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1913 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1913 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1913 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1914 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1914 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1915 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1915 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Dundee
1915 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1916 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1916 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Dundee
1916 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1917 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1917 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1917 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Dundee
1918 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1918 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1918 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Dundee
1919 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1919 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1919 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1920 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1920 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Aberdeen
1920 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1920 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1921 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1921 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Perth
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1922 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1923 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1923 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Perth
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Greenock
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1924 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1926 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1926 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1927 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1927 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1928 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1928 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1929 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1929 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1930 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1931 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1931 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1930 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1934 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1935 - O'Mara Grand Opera Company
Dundee
1936 - Universal Grand Opera Company
Glasgow
1938 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1940 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1940 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1942 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1942 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1943 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1943 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1944 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1944 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1944 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1945 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1945 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1945 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1946 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1946 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1946 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1947 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1947 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1948 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1948 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1949 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1949 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1949 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1951 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1952 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1952 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1952 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1953 - Covent Garden Opera
Edinburgh
1954 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Aberdeen
1954 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Edinburgh
1954 - Iskoldoff Italian Opera Company
Glasgow
1954 - Iskoldoff Italian Opera Company
Aberdeen
1954 - Iskoldoff Italian Opera Company
Edinburgh
1955 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1955 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Dundee
1956 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1957 - Sadler's Wells Opera
Aberdeen
1957 - Sadler's Wells Opera
Glasgow
1957 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow
1965 - Glasgow Grand Opera Society
Glasgow
1985 - Tayside Opera
Dundee
1986 - Scottish Opera
Glasgow
1986 - Scottish Opera
Edinburgh
1986 - Scottish Opera
Aberdeen
1992 - Scottish Opera
Glasgow
1992 - Scottish Opera
Aberdeen
1992 - Scottish Opera
Edinburgh
1996 - Scottish Opera
Glasgow
1996 - Scottish Opera
Edinburgh
1997 - Tayside Opera
Dundee
2001 - Scottish Opera
Glasgow
2001 - Scottish Opera
Edinburgh
2004 - Hanover Staatsoper
Edinburgh
2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Aberdeen
2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Galashiels
2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Dundee
2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Glasgow
2011 - Metropolitan Opera
Edinburgh
2015 - Scottish Opera
Glasgow
2015 - Scottish Opera
Edinburgh
2015 - Scottish Opera
Inverness
2015 - Scottish Opera
Aberdeen
2016 - Royal Opera, Covent Garden
Aberdeen
1909 - Carl Rosa Opera Company
Glasgow

England, UK - 3 entries

1986 - Scottish Opera
Newcastle-upon-Tyne
1992 - Scottish Opera
Newcastle-upon-Tyne
1996 - Scottish Opera
Newcastle-upon-Tyne

Music
Giuseppe Verdi (born Busseto, 10 October 1813; died Milan, 27 January 1901)

Text
Salvadore Cammarano, amended by Leone Emanuele Bardare.

Source
Play El Trovador (1836) by Antonio Garcia Gutiérrez (1813-1884).

Premieres
First performance: Rome (Teatro Apollo), 19 January 1853.
First UK performance: London (Covent Garden), 10 May 1855.
First performance in Scotland: Edinburgh (Theatre Royal), 21 January 1856.
Scottish Opera première: Glasgow (Theatre Royal), 22 January 1986.

Background
From its first performance there was never any doubt of this opera’s great success, and it swept the world very quickly. In the nineteenth century no season seemed complete without Trovatore, and it has maintained its popularity with great consistency ever since, despite frequent criticism of the implausibilities of the plot. It was frequently parodied, whether by Gilbert, with his frequent use of the idea of babies swapped at birth, or later by the Marx Brothers in their film A Night at the Opera. More than any other of Verdi’s works it is characterised by a driving energy which makes the performance pass at breakneck speed. It contains an astonishing number of memorable tunes, whether long arching arias for the romantic trio, or dramatic outpourings by Azucena, a fascinatingly powerful character. The choruses for gypsies and soldiers are equally memorable.

Main Characters
Ferrando, captain of the guard, an old retainer of Luna (bass)
Leonora (soprano)
Inez, her confidante (soprano)
Count Di Luna, a young Aragonese noble (baritone)
Manrico, a rebel leader (tenor)
Azucena, a gypsy, believed to be Manrico’s mother (mezzo-soprano)
Ruiz, a soldier in Manrico’s service (tenor)

Plot Summary
The opera, set in northern Spain, in the early 15th century, has as its background a civil war between the King of Aragon and rebel forces under Urgel. Duchess Leonora is lady-in-waiting to the Queen, and Luna is the leader of the Aragonese army. He loves Leonora, but she is more interested in a mysterious man who serenades her at night. This is Manrico, and he and Luna have a furious argument over Leonora. Up in the mountains at a gypsy camp, Manrico, wounded in the fight with Luna, and unable to understand his own urge to spare the Count's life, is being nursed by his mother, Azucena. She is haunted by memories of the burning, years earlier, of her mother, at the hands of the present Count’s father. In revenge, she had stolen the count’s baby son, and when the ashes of the pyre cooled, a baby’s skeleton was found. The old count never recovered, and his surviving son has remained obsessed by this event.

Leonora, believing Manrico dead, decides to take the veil, but is prevented by Luna and his men, and then in turn rescued by Manrico and his troops. The marriage preparations for Manrico and Leonora are interrupted by the news that Azucena has been caught and recognised. She is to be burned on Luna’s orders. Manrico’s rescue attempt fails and they end in the same prison cell. Leonora agrees to marry Luna if she can see Manrico once more. He agrees, but she takes poison and dies in Manrico’s arms. Luna has Manrico executed, and Azucena now reveals that the burned baby was her own child, and Manrico was therefore Luna’s own brother. Azucena’s mother has been avenged.

The Cast

Azucena
 a Biscayan gypsy woman
Count di Luna
 a young noble of Aragon
Dancer
 
Ferrando
 captain of Di Luna's guard
Inez
 confidante of Leonora
Leonora
 a Duchess, lady-in-waiting to the Princess of Aragon
Manrico
 a chieftain under the Prince of Biscay
Messenger
 
Old Gypsy
 
Ruiz
 a soldier in Manrico's service

© Copyright Opera Scotland 2019

Site by SiteBuddha